Access to sound-proofed space was also vital for producers, who relied on a complex MIDI set-up of analogue machines as opposed to a single laptop. “Drum machines played a crucial role in creating the rhythmic foundation of dance music in the 90s,” says Ades, while “synthesisers were used to create the melodic and harmonic elements of dance music.” Particularly crucial were samplers — a 90s DJ’s secret weapon — that enabled artists to add individual flair to their music. They “allowed producers to manipulate audio samples, which were often used to create unique sounds and textures in dance music,” says Ades. “Most popular were the Akai S1000 and E-mu SP-1200. I loved to use them.”